Volcanoes are one of the most amazing natural phenomena, the eruptions of which have long attracted people with their terrible power and grandeur. There are mud volcanoes in Turkmenistan, which are closely associated with oil and gas fields. Mud volcanoes are a unique natural phenomenon. These are special geological formations that constantly or periodically erupt mud and gases, often with water and oil. Mud volcanoes are located in Western Turkmenistan on the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea. By their origin, the volcanoes belong to the Lower and Middle Quaternary period, however, some appeared in the Holocene and continue to arise in modern times. Currently, they are natural geological monuments. Almost all volcanoes in Turkmenistan are called gaynak, which means «boiling». Besides, each volcano has its own original name, reflecting the nature of the volcanic eruption, its shape and features.